Gemcytabine and cyclophosphamide are non-limiting examples of chemotherapeutic agents that can be combined with or used in conjunction with the nucleic acid molecules e. Helix 1, 4 or 5 may also be extended by 2 or more base pairs e. As noted below, varying binding arm lengths can be chosen to optimize activity. The crystal structure of human PTP IB defined the phosphate binding site ofthe enzyme as a glycine rich cleft at the surface of the molecule with cysteine positioned at the base of this cleft. Alternatively, viral vectors may be used that provide for transient expression of ribozymes or antisense. Whereby the above treatment strategies can all improve morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac disease, the only existing definitive approach to curing the diseased heart is replacement by transplant.

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Transgenic mice that express HBV have also been used as a model to evaluate potential anti-virals. The nucleic acid bases can be hypoxanthinyl, or a functional equivalent thereof, in position 15 ‘of the ribozyme; the base at other positions may be guaninyl, hypoxanthinyl or 7-deazaguaninyl in positions 5, 8 and 12 in dd-4130 ribozyme; adenin yl, 2,6-diaminopurinyl, purinyl or 7-deaza adeninyl in positions 6, 9, 13 and 14; uracilyl, uracilyl, thyminyl or 5-propynyluracil-l-yl in position 4; cytosinyl, 5- methylcytosinyl or 5-propynylcytosin-l-yl in position 3; and adeninyl, cytosinyl, guaninyl, uracilyl, uracilyl, hypoxanthinyl, thyminyl, 5-methylcytosin-l-yl, 2,6-diaminopurinyl, purinyl, 7-deaza adeninyl, 7-deazaguaninyl, 5- propynylcytosinyl, 5-propynyluracil-l-yl, isoguaninyl, 2-aminopurinyl, 6- methyluracilyl, 4-thiouracil-l-yl, 2-pyrimidone-l-yl, quinazoline-2,4-dione-l-yl, xanthinyl, N 2 -dimethylguaninyl, or a functional equivalent thereof in position 7.

Icm this invention, small nucleic acid motifs “small refers to nucleic acid motifs no more than nucleotides in length, preferably no more than 80 nucleotides in length, and most preferably no more than 50 nucleotides in length; e.

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Acta, describe fluorescein monophosphates as fluorogenic substrates for PTPs. Each N and N’ is independently any base or non- nucleotide as used herein; X is adenosine, cytidine or uridine; Stem I-HI are meant to indicate three stem-loop structures; stems I-HI can be of any length and may be symmetrical or asymmetrical Usman et al,Curr.


Coli is lethal Chang, S. In yet another preferred embodiment, nucleic acid catalysts having chemical modifications which maintain or enhance enzymatic activity are provided. All such ranges are expressly included.

O 37 C using a final concenfration of either 40 nM or 1 mM ribozyme, i. The overhang prevents DNA polymerase replication since the recessed C-rich parent strand cannot be used as a template. The long- circulating liposomes enhance the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of DNA and RNA, particularly compared to conventional cationic liposomes which are known to accumulate in tissues ofthe MPS Liu et al, J.

The invention features novel nucleic acid-based techniques [e. When fed a high fat diet, the PTP-IB deficient mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive as opposed to normal PTP-IB expressing mice, who rapidly gained weight and become dv-4130 resistant Elchebly, M. Examples of such enzymatic nucleic acid molecules consist essentially of sequences defined in these tables.

The HBV polymerase initiates reverse transcription from the 5′ epsilon stem-loop three to four base pairs at which point the polymerase and attached nascent DNA are transferred to the 3′ copy ofthe DR1 region.

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Clearly, these nucleic acid molecules must be resistant to nucleases in order to function as effective intracellular therapeutic agents. Many examples in the 5440 describe CNS delivery methods of oligonucleotides by osmotic pump, see Chun et al,Neuroscience Letters, D’Aldin et al,Mol.

Suitable forms, in part, depend upon the use or the route of entry, for example, oral, transdermal, or by injection. The present body of knowledge in telomerase research dc-130 the need for methods to assay telomerase activity and for compounds that can regulate telomerase expression for research, diagnostic, trait alteration, animal health and therapeutic use.

Treatment xc-4130 telomerase inhibitors may provide effective cancer therapy with minimal side effects in normal somatic cells that lack telomerase activity. Administration of Nucleic Acid Molecules Methods for the delivery of nucleic acid molecules are described in Akhtar et al.

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Such forms should not prevent the composition or formulation from reaching a target cell i. These ribozymes can be tested for cleavage activity in vitro, for example, using the following procedure.

Cells from later generations of these mice showed chromosomal abnormalities consistent with telomere degradation, indicating that mTR is necessary for telomere length maintenance, but is not required for embryonic development, oncogenic transformation, or tumor formation in mice Blasco, M. Norton et al,Nature Biotechnology, 14, have reported the use of a peptide nucleic acid PNA molecule targeting hTR RNA to down regulate telomerase activity in human immortal breast rc-4130 cells.

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In addition, antioxidants and suspending agents may be used. Such ribozymes herein are said to “maintain” the enzymatic activity of an all RNA ribozyme. The standard duration of IFN-alpha therapy is 16 weeks, however, the optimal treatment length is still poorly defined. Virol, 73,and Kim et al,Biochem. The crystal structure of human PTP Dc-4103 defined the phosphate binding site ofthe enzyme as a glycine rich cleft at the surface of the molecule with cysteine positioned at the base of this cleft.

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Assays for PTPase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin-receptor subsfrate 1 are described. Taing et al,Biochemistry, 38,describe potent and highly selective inhibitors of PTP-IB comprising an array of bis aryldifluorophosphonates. NMT is expressed from a lethal gene in yeast Duronio, R. The ribozyme and antisense construct sequences listed in Tables33, 34,56, 58, 59, 62, 63 maybe formed of ribonucleotides or other nucleotides or non-nucleotides.

Vassar et al,Science, describe specific antisense oligonucleotides targeting BACE, used for inhibition studies of endogenous BACE expression in cells and APPsw cells via lipid mediated fransfection.